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Guide to the Jesús González Ortega Papers

MSN/MN 0508

 

Collection Summary

Title: Jesús González Ortega Papers.
Dates: 1857-1866, bulk 1865-1866
Collection No.: MSN/MN 0508
Creator: González Ortega, Jesús, 1822-1881
Extent: 124 folders; 1 container; .5 linear feet
Language: Collection material in Spanish, English and French
Repository: University of Notre Dame. Hesburgh Libraries, Department of Special Collections. 102 Hesburgh Library, Notre Dame, IN 46556
Abstract: A collection of letters and other papers belonging to Jesús González Ortega, an important political and military figure in mid-19th century Mexico. The papers mainly relate to González Ortega's stay in the United States in 1865-1867, the efforts of Benito Juárez's government in Mexico to remove him from political office while he was away, and his detainment by the U.S. government in November 1866.

Selected Search Terms

González Ortega, Jesús, 1822-1881 -- Archives.
Mexico -- History -- European intervention, 1861-1867 -- Sources.
Mexico -- Politics and government -- 1861-1867 -- Sources.
Mexico -- Relation -- United States -- Sources.
Mexico -- History, Military -- Sources.

Administrative Information

Restrictions: There are no access restrictions on this collection.

Preferred Citation: Jesús González Ortega Papers, Rare Books and Special Collections, Hesburgh Libraries of Notre Dame.

Acquisition and Processing Note: The González Ortega Papers were purchased by the Hesburgh Libraries in 2013, from William Reese Company of New Haven, Connecticut. Arranged and described 2018, by Yang Wu. Finding aid 2018, by Yang Wu.

Biographical Note

Jesús González Ortega (1822-1881), a prominent politician and general in mid-19th century Mexico, was born on the Hacienda de San Mateo, near Teúl, Zacatecas. He studied at the seminary in Guadalajara, Jalisco in his youth, but was unable to finish his schooling due to financial difficulties. González Ortega also studied law while serving as secretary to the justice of the peace in the village of San Juan Bautista de Teúl in Zacatecas (ca. 1850). At approximately this time he married Mercedes Mercado, a woman from Teúl. They had at least one child, a son named Lauro González Ortega.

As a supporter of the Liberals, González Ortega came to play a major role in the conflict with the Conservatives, the party favored by the the church, the army and larger landholders. When the Conservatives, led by Antonio López de Santa Anna, seized power in 1853, González Ortega organized protests in Zacatecas and became a prominent legislator in the state after Santa Anna's ouster in 1855. he took over the governorship of Zacatecas during the Reform War (1857-1860) between the Liberals and Conservatives. After mounting a successful defense of the state against Conservative forces in 1858-1859 he became a senior Liberal military strategist, taking Mexico City on Christmas Day 1860 and ending the war.

González Ortega was elected president of the Supreme Court in the Liberal government of President Benito Juárez in 1861, becoming the de facto vice-president of Mexico. He won further fame during the Second French Intervention in Mexico (1861-1867), mounting a heroic but ultimately unsuccessful defense against the invaders at the siege of Puebla in 1863. Further defeats in 1864 decimated González Ortega's army. By this time he was also in conflict with Juárez, who used the war to exercise powers beyond those granted to the president by the Mexican constitution. These conditions forced González Ortega to leave Mexico in 1865. He travelled to the United States in January on a temporary leave from his duties granted by Juárez. He moved around the U.S. in 1865 and 1866, attempting to purchase weapons, raise funds and recruit men for the Mexican army, but soon fell victim to political intrigue.

Seeking to remain in power without calling an election after his term expired in December 1865, Juárez sought to remove González Ortega, who was designated to succeed him by the Mexican constitution if no elections were held. On 8 November 1865 Juárez decreed that González Ortega was in dereliction of his duties by leaving Mexico and ordered his arrest. González Ortega, in response, declared himself president of the country, but overestimated the degree of support he enjoyed in Mexico. The United States, favoring Juárez, detained González Ortega when he attempted to return to Mexico on 3 November 1866. González Ortega was not allowed to return until January 1867, when he was imprisoned by Juárez supporters and held until August 1868. Although González Ortega still had allies in Mexico and was elected to the Mexican Congress during his imprisonment, his national prominence faded. He retired to private life after his release and died at Saltillo, Coahuila state in 1881.

Scope and Content Note

The collection includes 113 letters, some with enclosures, and 17 other items, dating from 1857-1866. The bulk of these are from 1865-1866, when González Ortega was in the United States, and include correspondence with Mexican officials, political allies, American businessmen, friends and family members. Also included is correspondence between his allies and friends, as well as declarations, contracts, orders, decrees, receipts, poems, one newspaper clipping, and political writings produced by González Ortega, his allies and Mexican and American officials. They relate mainly to González Ortega's political activities in the United States, including: efforts to purchase weapons for the Mexican army; efforts to recruit citizens of the United States and other countries to fight in Mexico; and efforts to raise funds for the war with France and to build railroads and telegraph lines in Mexico. Content also relates to González Ortega's conflicts with Juárez, and his detainment by the U.S. government in 1866. Other documents pertain to efforts by González Ortega's political allies to show support for the Mexican Liberal cause. Some correspondence and items also relate to personal matters, such as González Ortega's family and his poetry.

Arrangement Note

The collection is arranged into three series: 1. Political Correspondence, Manuscripts and Ephemera; 2. Personal Correspondence and Manuscripts; 3. Miscellaneous. There is typically one item per folder.

Related Material

See the Jesús González Ortega Collection in the Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection at the University of Texas at Austin.

Container List

  • Series 1: Political Correspondence, Manuscripts and Ephemera 
    • Folder 1 (MSN/MN 0508-1) Manuscript re Washington Carroll Tevis, 1857-1865. 8 pages on six sheets.
      Copies of documents or document excerpts referencing the American-born soldier of fortune Washington Carroll Tevis, translated into Spanish.
      • Folder 2 (MSN/MN 0508-2) Letter: Epitacio Huerta, Paris, France, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1864 July 15. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
        Letter in Spanish. Concerning Mexican prisoners and their treatment by France.
        • Folder 3 (MSN/MN 0508-3) Letter: Tomas Lopez, Paris, France, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1864 July 16. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
          Letter in Spanish. Lopez writes about his imprisonment after being captured by the French.
          • Folder 4 (MSN/MN 0508-4) Letter: Fernando Pousel, San Antonio de Béxar, Texas, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 February 5. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
            Written in Spanish. Long rationalization of his support for the reform movement.
            • Folder 5 (MSN/MN 0508-5) Letter: Tomás Cordero Luza, Chihuahua, Mexico, to Jesús González Ortega, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1865 March 2. ALS; 2 pages on one sheet.
              Letter in Spanish. Mentions General Negrete mustering 2,200 men.
              • Folder 6 (MSN/MN 0508-6) Letter: Francisco Abreu, Fort Union, New Mexico, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 April 8. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                Letter in Spanish. Comments on relations with the United States, and Abreu's loyalty to Juárez.
                • Folder 7 (MSN/MN 0508-7) Letter: Manuel Querada, Chihuahua, Mexico, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 April 20. ALS; 1 page on one sheet.
                  Letter in Spanish. Has little to say about the decree of Monterey.
                  • Folder 8 (MSN/MN 0508-8) Letter: Matías Romero, Washington DC, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 April 27. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                    Letter in Spanish. The Mexican minister to the United States welcomes Ortega to the country, and forwards him several letters he has held for him. He also invites Ortega to his home in Washington.
                    • Folder 9 (MSN/MN 0508-9) Letter: Juan Navarros, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 May 1. ALS; 1 page on one sheet.
                      Written in Spanish. Letter of introduction for Dr. C. Wilson.
                      • Folder 10 (MSN/MN 0508-10) Letter: Adolfo de la Garza, New Orleans, Louisiana, to Jesús González Ortega, Washington, D.C., 1865 May 4. ALS; 10 pages on one folded sheet and five sheets.
                        In Spanish and English. Regarding the Sociedad de Colonizacion para la Republica Mexicana (Mexican Colonization Society), a group of Union veterans seeking to settle in Mexico following the American Civil War. The letter has enclosed extracts on the aims of the society, a list of members, and two copies of the "Prospectus of the Mexican Colonization Society", one in English and another in Spanish.
                        • Folder 11 (MSN/MN 0508-11) Letter: Dr. William Fields, Wilmington, Delaware, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 May 10. ALS; 4 pages on one folded sheet.
                          Letter in English. Fields offers to sell the rights to his method of making gunpowder.
                          • Folder 12 (MSN/MN 0508-12) Letter: Nicholas Nolan, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 May 12. ALS; 1 page on one sheet.
                            Letter in English. Offers to sell six cases containing 600,000 gun caps at a price of $1.05 per thousand.
                            • Folder 13 (MSN/MN 0508-13) Letter: John Hall, Jr., Watertown, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 May 12. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                              Letter in English. Responding to Ortega's call for discharged Union army officers to fight in Mexico.
                              • Folder 14 (MSN/MN 0508-14) Letter: Pedro Ogazon, San Francisco, California, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 May 17. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                Letter in Spanish. Mentions important negotiations regarding Mexico, but little information available.
                                • Folder 15 (MSN/MN 0508-15) Letter: Rodolfo Hinz, London, England, to Jesús González Ortega, New York, New York, 1865 May 24. ALS; 4 pages on one folded sheet.
                                  Letter in Spanish. Hinz, a naturalized citizen of England from Stettin, Prussia, offers his services to the reformist cause as a lover of liberty.
                                  • Folder 16 (MSN/MN 0508-16) Letter: Comte de Monieri, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 May 29. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet,.
                                    Letter in French. Monieri states that he is ready to offer his services to Ortega, if Ortega can provide assurances.
                                    • Folder 17 (MSN/MN 1015-17) Letter: Francisco Nye & H. Patrullo, Chicago, Illinois, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 June 5. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                      Written in Spanish. Discusses efforts to raise soldiers for the cause among immigrants, using newspaper advertisements.
                                      • Folder 18 (MSN/MN 0508-18) Letter: Ignacio Altamirano, Acapulco, Mexico, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 June 9. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                        Letter in Spanish. Congratulates Ortega on his work in New York, and offers news of his own work in Acapulco, as well as information about prisoners of Belgian descent from the imperial war.
                                        • Folder 19 (MSN/MN 0508-19) Letter: Edward A. Mameré, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 June 13. ALS; 1 page on one sheet.
                                          Letter in English. Offers to construct a submarine that can sink any vessel for $3,000.
                                          • Folder 20 (MSN/MN 0508-20) Letter: Adolf Meyer, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, New York, New York, 1865 June 16. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                            Written in English. Meyer offers his services in the cause of the free government, as military surgeon to examine newly mustered troops.
                                            • Folder 21 (MSN/MN 0508-21) Letter: W. J. Hadden, Jersey City, New Jersey, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 June 23. ALS; 1 page on one folded sheet.
                                              Hadden mentions he is actively engaged in mustering men to go to Mexico. He asks for permission to proceed and for a commission in the army.
                                              • Folder 22 (MSN/MN 0508-22) Letter: Ramon Díaz, Havana, Cuba, to Matías Romero, Washington DC, 1865 July 12. ALS; 1 page on one sheet.
                                                Letter in Spanish. Request to pay $127 to Miguel de Embil. Countersigned by Miguel de Embil and Antonio de F. Izquierdo.
                                                • Folder 23 (MSN/MN 0508-23) Letter: Plácido Vega, San Francisco, California, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 July 15. ALS; 1 page on one folded sheet.
                                                  Written in Spanish. Letter of introduction for Julio Valade.
                                                  • Folder 24 (MSN/MN 0508-24) Letter: Guillermo Prieto, Chihuahua, Mexico, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 July 20. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                    Letter in Spanish. Plans for invasion.
                                                    • Folder 25 (MSN/MN 0508-25) Letter: C. P. Fisher, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 August 10. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                      Letter in English. Offers to provide a publication about Mexico to generate support for the cause, and requests $1,800 to $2,000 for it.
                                                      • Folder 26 (MSN/MN 0508-26) Letter: A. Lozano, San Francisco, California, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 August 18. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                        Written in Spanish. Mentions the generals Plácido Vega and Sanchez Ochoa.
                                                        • Folder 27 (MSN/MN 0508-27) Letter: Ignacio Altamirano, Acapulco, Mexico, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 August 25. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                          Letter in Spanish. Discusses Juan Grayson, Guadalupe Gallardo, and their comrades at Michoacan.
                                                          • Folder 28 (MSN/MN 0508-28) Letter: A. Lozano, "Aboard John Gohm y Samuel", to Jesús González Ortega, New York, New York, 1865 September 9. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                            Letter in Spanish. Discusses General Plácido Vega and war materials being shipped to Mexico.
                                                            • Folder 29 (MSN/MN 0508-29) Letter: J. R. Perez, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Jesús González Ortega, New York, New York, 1865 September 24. ALS; 1 page on one folded sheet.
                                                              Letter in Spanish. Offers to help raise troops in Philadelphia for the cause.
                                                              • Folder 30 (MSN/MN 0508-30) Correspondence: Guillermo Prieto and Benito Juárez, 1865 October 1-2. 5 pages on two folded sheets.
                                                                Letters in Spanish. Copies of six letters between Prieto and Juárez. They include protestations of loyalty and discuss Ortega.
                                                                • Folder 31 (MSN/MN 0508-31) Letter: Matías Romero, Washington DC, to Jesús González Ortega, New York, New York, 1865 October 24. ALS; 1 page on one folded sheet.
                                                                  Letter in Spanish. Responding to his note about General Baker.
                                                                  • Folder 32 (MSN/MN 0508-32) Letter: Matías Romero, Washington DC, to Jesús González Ortega, New York, New York, 1865 October 26. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                    Letter in Spanish. Regarding General Baker.
                                                                    • Folder 33 (MSN/MN 0508-33) Letter: Unidentified, n.p., to "Nacho", n.p., 1865 October 26. AL; 12 pages on three folded sheets.
                                                                      Letter in Spanish. Comments on the constitution, mentions Juárez and Ortega.
                                                                      • Folder 34 (MSN/MN 0508-34) Letter: Guillermo Prieto, Paso Del Norte, Texas, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 October 31. ALS; 3 pages on two sheets.
                                                                        Letter in Spanish. Reflections on the army, the executive branch of government and the indefensible laws of the new republic.
                                                                        • Folder 35 (MSN/MN 0508-35) Letter: Jesús González Ortega, New York, New York, to the "President of the Supreme Court of Justice of the Republic of Mexico," n.p., 1865 November 12. ALS; 4 pages on two sheets.
                                                                          Draft of a letter, in Spanish. Protesting the "fruitless and immoral judgement" against him in the case brought by Colonel Allen and Benito Juárez.
                                                                          • Folder 36 (MSN/MN 0508-36) Letter: Jesús González Ortega, Presidio del Norte, Texas, to Benito Juárez, n.p., 1865 December 15. Retained letter fragment, in clerical hand: 4 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                            Written in Spanish. Ortega shares his ideas on the future of Mexico.
                                                                            • Folder 37 (MSN/MN 0508-37) Letter: Guillermo Prieto, "F.C.", to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 February 5. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                              Written in Spanish. Concerning letters received and Juárez.
                                                                              • Folder 38 (MSN/MN 0508-38) Letter: Francisco Naranjo, Villa Aldama, Mexico, to Miguel Negrete, n.p., 1866 February 7. ALS; 4 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                Retained copy of a letter, in Spanish. An angry response to a letter by Negrete regarding political views. It declares him to be an enemy of the nation.
                                                                                • Folder 39 (MSN/MN 0508-39) Letter: Francisco Naranjo, Villa Aldama, Mexico, to Miguel Negrete, n.p., 1866 February 7. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                  Retained copy of a letter, in Spanish. News of traitors, military reports of action in Mexico.
                                                                                  • Folder 40 (MSN/MN 0508-40) Letter: Rafael Huerta, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 February 20. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                    Letter in Spanish. Offers support for Ortega's protest of the 8 November 1865 decree.
                                                                                    • Folder 41 (MSN/MN 0508-41) Letter: Tomas Lopez, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, San Antonio de Béxar, Texas, 1866 February 20. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                      Letter in Spanish. Protest of Juárez's decree of 30 November 1865.
                                                                                      • Folder 42 (MSN/MN 0508-42) Letter: Epitacio Huerta, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, San Antonio de Béxar, Texas, 1866 February 20. ALS; 4 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                        In Spanish. On the response to Juárez's decree of 8 November 1865.
                                                                                        • Folder 43 (MSN/MN 0508-43) Manuscript: Joaquin Villalobos et al, 1866 February 20. 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                          Written in Spanish. Titled "Declaration by Mexican Citizens in New York to withhold recognition of the takeover by Maximilian". The document is signed by several Ortega supporters, including Joaquin Villalobos, Col. Juan Togno, Carlos Dufeau, J. Rivera, Juan N. Enriquez Orestes and Joaquin G. Ortega, Ortega's brother.
                                                                                          • Folder 44 (MSN/MN 0508-44) Letter: Joaquin Villalobos, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 February 22. ALS; 1 page on one folded sheet.
                                                                                            Letter in Spanish. His own protest of the actions of Benito Juárez and the 8 November decree.
                                                                                            • Folder 45 (MSN/MN 0508-45) Letter: Felipe B. Berriozábal, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 February 23. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                              In Spanish. Elaborate response to the actions of Juárez which he seems to support.
                                                                                              • Folder 46 (MSN/MN 0508-46) Letter: Leandro Cuevas, "F.C.", to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 February 23. ALS; 4 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                Written in Spanish. Justifies his response to the 8 November 1865 decree. This letter was later published in English translation in Papers Relating to the Foreign Affairs Accompanying the Annual Message of the President of the Second Session, Thirty-ninth Congress (Washington DC: 1867) 3:, page 451.
                                                                                                • Folder 47 (MSN/MN 0508-47) Letter: Francisco Zarco, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 February 23. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                  Letter in Spanish. Zarco justifies his response to the decree of 8 November 1865.
                                                                                                  • Folder 48 (MSN/MN 0508-48) Letter: Francisco Zarco, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 February 24. ALS; 4 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                    Written in Spanish. News of Juárez from the journalist and former Mexican secretary of state.
                                                                                                    • Folder 49 (MSN/MN 0508-49) Letter: Epitacio Huerta, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 February 26. ALS; 7 pages on 4 sheets.
                                                                                                      Letter in Spanish. Reactions to Juárez's decree of 8 November 1865 and how he lost his position as Governor of Michoacán.
                                                                                                      • Folder 50 (MSN/MN 0508-50) Letter: Cipriano Robert, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 February 27. ALS; 1 page on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                        In Spanish. Justifies his response to the 8 November 1865 decree.
                                                                                                        • Folder 51 (MSN/MN 0508-51) Letter: Pantaleon Tovar, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 February 28. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                          Letter in Spanish. His response to the 8 November 1865 decree.
                                                                                                          • Folder 52 (MSN/MN 0508-52) Telegram: D. Cavero (?), San Antonio, Texas, to General Heurta (?), n.p., 1866 February 28. 1 page on one sheet.
                                                                                                            Written in English on America Telegraph Company form. Context is unclear.
                                                                                                            • Folder 53 (MSN/MN 0508-53) Letter: Miguel Negrete, Brownsville, Texas, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 March 1. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                              Letter in Spanish. Mentions a letter from Prieto and discusses Washington's promises to underwrite loans.
                                                                                                              • Folder 54 (MSN/MN 0508-54) Letter: Miguel Negrete, Brownsville, Texas, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 March 2. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                In Spanish. Negrete mentions that things are developing rapidly, and that newspapers claim Mexico is exchanging one imperial throne for another under the name of Juárez.
                                                                                                                • Folder 55 (MSN/MN 0508-55) Letter: Leandro Cuevas, "S.C.", to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 March 5. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                  Letter in Spanish. Cuevas argues for the maintenance of an established government.
                                                                                                                  • Folder 56 (MSN/MN 0508-56) Letter: Miguel Negrete, Brownsville, Texas, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 March 8. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                    Letter in Spanish. News based on letters he has received, mentions skirmishes in the state of Michoacán.
                                                                                                                    • Folder 57 (MSN/MN 0508-57) Letter: José Cosío Aramberri, hasta San Ygnacio, Texas, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 March 18. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                      Letter in Spanish. Discusses Don Marcelino Cavero and General Aureliano.
                                                                                                                      • Folder 58 (MSN/MN 0508-58) Letter: Leon Varrios, Villa de Noriega, Mexico, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 March 20. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                        In Spanish. Supports Ortega's response to Juárez, and discusses the military response.
                                                                                                                        • Folder 59 (MSN/MN 0508-59) Letter: Leon Varrios, Villa de Noriega, Mexico, to Unidentified, n.p., 1866 March 20. ALS; 2 pages on two folded sheets.
                                                                                                                          Written in Spanish. An authorization to pay Ortega for arms, munitions and clothing imported from the United States, along with a list of same.
                                                                                                                          • Folder 60 (MSN/MN 0508-60) Letter: Leon Varrios, Mier y Noriega, Mexico, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 March 21. ALS; 1 page on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                            Letter in Spanish, concerning an order for arms and medicines and how to pay for them.
                                                                                                                            • Folder 61 (MSN/MN 0508-61) Telegram: Unidentified, San Francisco, California, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 March 28. 1 page, with enclosure and envelope.
                                                                                                                              The author, in a telegram in English informs Ortega that he has "the war material to open a great campaign".
                                                                                                                              • Folder 62 (MSN/MN 0508-62) Letter: Jesús González Ortega and Rafael Díaz Martinez, New York, New York, to Unidentified, n.p., 1866 March 29. AL; 5 pages on two folded sheets.
                                                                                                                                In Spanish. Draft of a letter. On the conspiracy to arrest Maximilian, and their reasons for attempting to overthrow the Mexican government.
                                                                                                                                • Folder 63 (MSN/MN 0508-63) Letter: Rafael Díaz Martinez, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 March 31. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet, with enclosure.
                                                                                                                                  Letter in Spanish. Speaking for the Mexican Society of Reformist Clergy in condemning the 8 November 1865 decree.
                                                                                                                                  • Folder 64 (MSN/MN 0508-64) Letter: José María Carbajal and Francisco de Leon, Tamaulipas, Mexico, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 April 1. AL; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                    In Spanish. Letter transcription by Francisco de Leon. The governor and military commander of Tamaulipas responds, 17 February 1866, to a protest published by Ortega.
                                                                                                                                    • Folder 65 (MSN/MN 0508-65) Letter: Miguel Negrete, Brownsville, Texas, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 April 9. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                      Letter in Spanish. Relaying news from Mexico.
                                                                                                                                      • Folder 66 (MSN/MN 0508-66) Letter: Miguel Negrete, Brownsville, Texas, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 May 3. ALS; 4 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                        Letter in Spanish. News of troop movements, politics and public sentiment.
                                                                                                                                        • Folder 67 (MSN/MN 0508-67) Letter: Miguel Ruelas, Zacatecas, Mexico, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 May 4. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                          Letter in Spanish. Information on the investigations in the city, and mentions that Ortega's wife Maria was in town the previous week.
                                                                                                                                          • Folder 68 (MSN/MN 0508-68) Letter: Miguel Negrete, Brownsville, Texas, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 June 8. ALS; 4 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                            Letter in Spanish. Discusses news of opposition expressed in newspapers from Passia, Escobedo and Saavedra. Negrete also writes about the capitulation of Napoleon, Colonel Gomez and General Rivera.
                                                                                                                                            • Folder 69 (MSN/MN 0508-69) Manuscript: Guillermo Prieto, et al: "Protest de los Mejicanos que suscriber contra la ingerencia de D. Antonio López de Santa Anna en los negocios de Mejico", 1866 June 10. 58 pages.
                                                                                                                                              Written in Spanish. A protest against Santa Anna's efforts to raise an army from exile and retake Mexico, signed by Guillermo Prieto and other Mexican politicians.
                                                                                                                                              • Folder 70 (MSN/MN 0508-70) Manuscript: Jose Maria Patomi, et al, Untitled, 1866 June 25. 4 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                Written in Spanish. Fair copy of a declaration, arguing for the legitimacy of the Liberal cause. Signed by Jose Maria Patomi, Fernando Pousel, Jose Maria Palacios and Guillermo Prieto. It mentions the attempts of Santa Anna to negotiate in New York.
                                                                                                                                                • Folder 71 (MSN/MN 0508-71) Letter: Unidentified, Zacatecas, Mexico, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 July 19. AL; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                  Letter in Spanish. News on the ground in Mexico.
                                                                                                                                                  • Folder 72 (MSN/MN 0508-72) Letter: Carlos Dufeau, New Orleans, Louisiana, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 July 21. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                    In Spanish. Mentions the generals Ayer, Sheridan and Carbajal, as well as news from Matamoros.
                                                                                                                                                    • Folder 73 (MSN/MN 0508-73) Document: William H. McKee, "Condiciones para el establecimiento de una casa de moneda...." 1866 July 24. 4 pages on 2 folded sheets.
                                                                                                                                                      Written in Spanish. A contract of "Conditions for the Establishment of a Bank" in the name of the Mexican Republic, with the endorsement of Jesús González Ortega.
                                                                                                                                                      • Folder 74 (MSN/MN 0508-74) Letter, with enclosure: Alfred A. Green, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 August 6. ALS; 1 page on one sheet, with 5 page enclosure.
                                                                                                                                                        Letter in English, enclosure in Spanish. Forwarding a manuscript by Green concerning Ortega's petition to the U.S. Congress to guarantee Mexican bonds.
                                                                                                                                                        • Folder 75 (MSN/MN 0508-75) Letter: Jesús González Ortega, New York, New York, to "Sr. Dr.", n.p., 1866 August 24. AL; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                          In Spanish. Retained copy of a letter concerning the placement of Mexican funds in the United States.
                                                                                                                                                          • Folder 76 (MSN/MN 0508-76) Letter: Jesús González Ortega, "Metropolitan", to General John C. Fremont, n.p., 1866 August 24. ALS; 1 page on one sheet.
                                                                                                                                                            Letter in Spanish. Draft of a cover letter, enclosing a copy of a letter to Dr. McKee that is not in the collection.
                                                                                                                                                            • Folder 77 (MSN/MN 0508-77) Letter: McKee, William H., New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 August 27. ALS; 1 page on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                              Letter in Spanish. McKee tells Ortega that the contract to set up the national bank in San Francisco is in force.
                                                                                                                                                              • Folder 78 (MSN/MN 0508-78) Letter: J. M. Revost, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 September 3. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                In Spanish. News of Zacatecas and from Juan McArthur.
                                                                                                                                                                • Folder 79 (MSN/MN 0508-79) Letter: Guillermo Prieto, San Antonio de Bejar, Texas, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 September 11. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                  Letter in Spanish. Responding to a letter Ortega wrote to him on 15 June 1866. Desires to return to Mexico and serve the cause.
                                                                                                                                                                  • Folder 80 (MSN/MN 0508-80) Letter: Carlos Dufeau, Brownsville, Texas, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 September 15. ALS; 4 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                    Letter in Spanish. News from Matamoros, including the promotion of Canales and Hinojosa and the publication of the decree of Juárez at Monterey.
                                                                                                                                                                    • Folder 81 (MSN/MN 0508-81) Letter: Edward Barrett, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 September 23. ALS; 1 page on one sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                      Letter in English. Inquires about the reason for General Campbell's visit to New York, and whether he represents the Mexican government.
                                                                                                                                                                      • Folder 82 (MSN/MN 0508-82) Letter: J. M. Revost, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 September 25. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                        In Spanish. Relays news from newspapers in Zacatecas on the army's movements on the Rio Bravo and Vera Cruz.
                                                                                                                                                                        • Folder 83 (MSN/MN 0508-83) Letter: José Maria Patoni, San Antonio, Texas, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 September 26. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                          Letter in Spanish. Patoni mentions that he intends to leave for Brownsville but is held up by events at Monterey. He expresses support for the cause against Juárez.
                                                                                                                                                                          • Folder 84 (MSN/MN 0508-84) Letter: Ramon L. Díaz, New Orleans, Louisiana, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 October 4. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                            Letter in Spanish. Encloses a letter from San Antonio, awaiting the arrival of a steamboat from Brazos with news that the liberal cause is triumphant.
                                                                                                                                                                            • Folder 85 (MSN/MN 0508-85) Letter: Duff Green, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 October 6. ALS; 2 pages on two sheets.
                                                                                                                                                                              Letter in English. Cover letter submitting the draft of a charter for the Mexican International Railroad Company. The charter is not included in the collection.
                                                                                                                                                                              • Folder 86 (MSN/MN 0508-86) Letter: Jesus Fuentes y Muñiz, New York, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 October 15. ALS; 1 page on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                Letter in Spanish. Request for money.
                                                                                                                                                                                • Folder 87 (MSN/MN 0508-87) Letter: Philip H. Sheridan, New Orleans, Louisiana, to Commanding Officer, Brazos Santiago, Texas, 1866 October 29. ALS; 1 page on one sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Letter in English. Orders the arrest of Ortega and his partisans with instructions that they be held until further orders from General Sedgwick in Brownsville.
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Folder 88 (MSN/MN 0508-88) Letter: Burton Drew, Brownsville, Texas, to Captain John Paulson, Brazos Santiago, Texas, 1866 November 3. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Letter in English. Orders him to hold Ortega and his partisans, or, if they wish, let them return to New Orleans.
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Folder 89 (MSN/MN 0508-89) Letter: George E. Tripp, n.p., to Unidentified, n.p., 1866 November 3. ALS: 1 page on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Letter in English. Certification by George E. Tripp, master of the steamship St. Mary, that his vessel was boarded by order of Sheridan and that Ortega and his party have been arrested.
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Folder 90 (MSN/MN 0508-90) Newspaper clipping, 1866 November 5. 1 item.
                                                                                                                                                                                        In Spanish. A clipping printing a letter by Ortega from Brazos de Santiago.
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Folder 91 (MSN/MN 0508-91) Letter: Charles H. Morse, Brazos Santiago, Texas, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 December 4. ALS; 1 page on one sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Letter in English. Acknowledging receipt of a letter.
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Folder 92 (MSN/MN 0508-92) Letter: Jesús González Ortega, New York, New York, to Gaspar Sánchez Ochoa, n.p., 1866. ALS; 1 page on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Written in Spanish. Letter appointing General Fremont to purchase armaments to be sent to the army and navy in Mexico, as soon as possible. Fremont is to be paid 2 percent of the total invested in such arms as recompense for his services.
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Folder 93 (MSN/MN 0508-93) Manuscript: Jesús González Ortega, Decree as President of Mexico, 1866. 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Translation in English, in an unidentified hand, of the "official" decree in support of the Railroad and Telegraph Co., given by Ortega as "Constitutional President of the United States of Mexico".
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Folder 94 (MSN/MN 0508-94) Manuscript, Jesús González Ortega, Decree as President of Mexico, 1866. 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                In Spanish. A draft decree by Ortega, establishing the Mexican International Railroad.
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Folder 95 (MSN/MN 0508-95) Letter: Jesús González Ortega, New York, New York, to C.P. Firshing, "142 Fulton Street", n.d. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Letter in English. On establishing a weekly periodical in aid of the Mexican revolution.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Folder 96 (MSN/MN 0508-96) Letter: Guillermo B. Maxon, n.p., to Generals Fernando Ortega and Huerta, n.p., n.d. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    In English. Maxon, Director of the American & Mexican Railroad & Telegraph Co., requests that Ortega and Huerta certify the commissions of the Mexican government to build a railroad and telegraph from the Port of Guaymas to El Paso del Norte, no matter which party ends up controlling the government.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Folder 97 (MSN/MN 0508-97) Manuscript: Unidentified author, n.d. 4 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Written in Spanish. Draft of a manifesto on the 8 November 1865 decree.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Folder 98 (MSN/MN 0508-98) Manuscript fragment: Unidentified author, n.d. 8 pages on four sheets.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Written in Spanish. Analyzing the situation in Meixco. Also contains a list of members of the Liberal party.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Folder 99 (MSN/MN 0508-99) Manuscript, Jesús González Ortega, Draft bond formula, n.d. 2 pages on 1 sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          In Spanish. A documentary formula for repaying debts owed by Mexico and the role of the United States in guaranteeing the debt.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Folder 100 (MSN/MN 0508-100) Manuscript, n.d. 4 pages on two sheets.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Written in Spanish. Writing on Mexican politics.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Folder 101 (MSN/MN 0508-101) Manuscript fragment: Unidentified author, n.d. 24 pages on six folded sheets, with one enclosure.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Written in Spanish. A history of recent events in Mexico.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Series 2: Personal Correspondence and Manuscripts 
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Folder 102 (MSN/MN 0508-102) Manuscript: "Encinillas", "A Magdalenita Acosta", 1865 February 1. 4 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                In Spanish. Hand-written love poem.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Folder 103 (MSN/MN 0508-103) Letter: Mercedes Ortega, Zacatecas, Mexico, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 April 3. ALS; 8 pages on two folded sheets.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Written in Spanish. Mercedes, the wife of Ortega, discusses family news.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Folder 104 (MSN/MN 0508-104) Letter: Mercedes Ortega, Zacatecas, Mexico, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 April 13. ALS; 4 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Letter in Spanish. Family news.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Folder 105 (MSN/MN 0508-105) Letter: Pepe Rivera y Rio, Havana, Cuba, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 May 3. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Letter in Spanish. About plans to publish subscriptions for one of his novels.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Folder 106 (MSN/MN 0508-106) Letter: Mercedes Ortega, Zacatecas, Mexico, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 May 12. ALS; 4 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In Spanish. Mentions Manuel Cevallos.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Folder 107 (MSN/MN 0508-107) Letter: Mercedes Ortega, Zacatecas, Mexico, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 June 10. ALS; 8 pages on two folded sheets.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In Spanish.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Folder 108 (MSN/MN 0508-108) Letter: Pepe Rivera y Rio, Williamstown, Massachusetts, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 September 28. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In Spanish. Rivera y Rio mentions that he has gone to the mountains to relax. He says that he uses the local library and talks to professors, and writes about the absurdity of Juárez's claims to power.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Folder 109 (MSN/MN 0508-109) Letter: Charles Lasalle, n.p., to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 October 4. ALS; 1 page on one sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In English. One page on one sheet. A receipt to Ortega for three months' subscription to Les Courier des Etats Unis.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Folder 110 (MSN/MN 0508-110) Letter: Josefo Ortega, Tlaltenango, Mexico, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1865 December 5. ALS; 2 pages on one sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Letter in Spanish. Family news.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Folder 111 (MSN/MN 0508-111) Letter: Matias Garcia, Zacatecas, Mexico, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 April 18. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Letter in Spanish. Family and local news.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Folder 112 (MSN/MN 0508-112) Letter: Norberta M. de Ortega, Zacatecas, Mexico, to Joaquin Ortega, n.p. 1866 May 2. ALS; 4 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Letter in Spanish. Family matters.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Folder 113 (MSN/MN 0508-113) Letter: Acélie Togno, Fishkill, New York, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 May 22. ALS; 2 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Written in Spanish. Personal note.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Folder 114 (MSN/MN 0508-114) Letter: Miguel Ruelas, Zacatecas, Mexico, to Dona Mercedes Mercada, New York, New York, 1866 July 3. ALS; 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Letter in Spanish. On business negotiations regarding a hotel rental.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Folder 115 (MSN/MN 0508-115) Letter: Lauro Gonzalez Ortega, "Fort Washington", to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866 October 15. ALS; 1 page on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In Spanish. Letter from Ortega's son, informing his father that his mother has gone to Mexico.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Folder 116 (MSN/MN 0508-116) Manuscript poem: Unidentified author, "Los Celages de la Patria al capitan Don Francisco Guiliaza, en nuestra prison", 1866 November 29. 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In Spanish.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Folder 117 (MSN/MN 0508-117) Letter: Norberta Ortega, Josefo, and Maria, Tlaltenango, Mexico, to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., 1866. ALS; 4 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In Spanish. Family news.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Folder 118 (MSN/MN 0508-118) Letter: Acélie Togno, n.p., to Joaquin Ortega, n.p., n.d. ALS; 1 page on one sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Letter in Spanish. Hopes to see Ortega before he goes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Folder 119 (MSN/MN 0508-119) Letter: Acélie Togno, n.p., to Jesús González Ortega, n.p., n.d. ALS; 1 page on one sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In Spanish. Personal note.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Folder 120 (MSN/MN 0508-120) Letter: Acélie Togno, n.p., to "Joaquinillo", n.p., n.d. ALS; 1 page on one sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In Spanish. A personal note, giving Joaquinillo (possibly Joaquin Ortega) directions on travelling to meet her.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Folder 121 (MSN/MN 0508-121) Manuscript poem: Unidentified author, "Amores sin esperanza", n.d. 2 pages on one sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In Spanish.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Series 3: Miscellaneous 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Folder 122 (MSN/MN 0508-122) Document: Juan N. Berrjen, Draft rental agreement, n.d. 2 pages on one sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In Spanish.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Folder 123 (MSN/MN 0508-123) Document: Draft rental agreement, n.d. 3 pages on one folded sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In Spanish.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Folder 124 (MSN/MN 0508-124) Letter: Unidentified, n.p., to Julio F. Uhink, Mexico City, Mexico, n.d. AL; 1 page on one sheet.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Letter in Spanish. A note to Uhink, a merchant, recording the exchange rate of the pound.